Published by the Home Economics Department of the USDA, these images are courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.
- Buy to save
- Serve to save
- Store to save
Like during the First World War, preventing food waste in WWII was a way to help keep food supplies freed up for soldiers and the Allies. In addition, canned foods could be scarce from time to time, and so Americans were growing and home canning their own more than ever. In particular, meat and dairy products were precious and sometimes difficult to get, even with ration points. Preventing food waste not only helped secure the food supply, it also saved money.
By the 1940s, the majority of Americans had access to electricity and therefore electric refrigeration. But while refrigerator companies wasted no time touting not only the benefits of electric refrigeration, but also how to use fridges, sometimes old habits died hard. Storing dairy products at room temperature, for example. Other old-fashioned wisdom like on how to store fresh vegetables, was sometimes lost. So home economists like those at the USDA took it upon themselves to make sure all Americans had access to correct food safety information.
- Clean milk will keep several days at 40 - 45 degrees F
- Don't let milk stand at room temperature .... it spoils quickly
- Cool quickly
- Keep cold
- Use soon
If you're wondering why "clean milk" will only keep a few days in the fridge, it's likely that the milk being referred to in the pamphlet was raw and unpasteurized. You'll notice in the photograph that the woman is placing a glass bottle of milk in the fridge, and quite near the freezer compartment. The rest of the refrigerator is full of glass refrigerator dishes - designed to keep food "clean, covered, and cold." The baby is present to remind parents of the importance of keeping even dessert dishes cold and unspoiled.
The meat dish in refrigerator is an ideal place.
- Cover fresh meat or poultry loosely .... keep very cold .... 45 degrees F or lower.
- Put ground fresh meat in a clean dish .... cover.... keep very cold
- Fish and ground fresh meats spoil quickly even in a cold place. Don't keep more than 24 hours.
- If you don't have a refrigerator you can keep perishable food for a short time in a spring house or a cold cellar.
Here again the same woman is putting raw meat in the "meat drawer" of the refrigerator - located directly below the freezer compartment. It appears to be a metal drawer that slides out completely, presumably for ease of cleaning.
Most delightful for me are the photographs of the root cellar (center) and spring house (right). Of course, the earth keeps things at a constant 54 degrees F, and spring houses often were full of constantly running water, which not only kept the building cool, but some foods could also be placed in the water to keep them even colder. This was a common way to keep foods cool before electric refrigeration. Hung in the well or sunk in a running stream, the water would leach heat away from the foods and keep them cool.
- Cool cooked meats quickly.
- Cover well.
- Keep cold.
- Pour soup, broth or stew into jar .... cool quickly .... cover.... keep cold.
- Left standing in the kitchen it makes a "Happy Hunting Ground" for bacteria.
- Cut meats for salad and sandwiches just before using.
- Meat spreads and salads should be kept very cold until served.
Cooling hot foods quickly before refrigeration is still recommended by health department professionals. Most botulism cases come not from poorly canned foods, but from foods left over overnight or for several days and being reheated and consumed.
- Put table fats in covered dish.
- Store in cold, dark place .... away from strong odors.
- Keep cooking fats in cool.... dry..... dark place.
- Strain fat drippings to remove food particles.... store in clean jars.
- Don't let stand on back of stove.
Of course during the war, waste fats were saved for munitions manufacturing. But here was have answered the age-old question as to whether or not you should store your bacon grease in a coffee can at room temperature like grandma used to - don't! I recommend a glass container (canning jars are nice) in the fridge or freezer. It lasts forever there, the glass container won't rust, and is easy to clean.
- Wash salad greens.... drain.... store in vegetable pan.... keep cold.
- Celery and asparagus - "To Freshen.... keep our feet wet"
- Trim non-edible parts from tender roots or cooking greens.
- Wash.... drain.... put in covered pan.... keep cold.
- "To hold the sweet in.... Corn, Peas, Lima Beans" keep cold.... let stay in pod or husk unless you can store tightly covered in refrigerator.
I am extremely tempted now to store my celery not in the crisper drawer, but in a jar of water! Of course, finding a place for it to stand upright is difficult... However, you can store cut celery in water - it will become extremely crisp.
Fresh corn, garden peas, and young fresh lima beans all convert sugars to starches quite quickly after being picked. Keeping them in their pods helps prevent them from drying out.
- Spread berries, keep dry and cold. That's the way to prevent mold.
- "Don't pinch, bruise or break our skin.... you'll let the enemy 'rot' come in."
- Wash and cap just before using.
- Be gentle with tender skinned fruit.
- Spread to keep from bruising.
- Keep ripe fruit cold.
- Let under-ripe fruit ripen at room temperature to bring out the flavor.
If you've ever taken a container of raspberries from the fridge with dismay to see them growing mold, perhaps it would be best to follow this advice. Certainly don't wash berries until just before use.
But my goodness - I wish I had the sort of fruit rack pictured above - pears are the hardest by far to keep from spoiling or ripening too quickly.
- Potatoes - The blackout suits me
- Onions - .... me too
- Sweet potato [? or squash, hard to tell] - I like it warmer than the rest
I like this wooden storage rack as well, apparently made from wooden fruit crates. Apples and citrus up top, a large cabbage and perhaps onions (with covering) on the second rack, and potatoes, covered to keep from sprouting and turning green, on the bottom. One lament of mine is that modern kitchens almost NEVER have good storage for vegetables like this.
- Keep bread and cake separate.
- Store break in a ventilated box.
- If home baked, cool before storing.
- In hot, damp weather put in refrigerator.
- Scale... air.... and sun the bread box often.
- Cookies stay fresh longer in a tightly covered jar.
Do you have a bread box? My mother-in-law does, and my parents' house has a built-in bread drawer in the kitchen - made of metal. I do not have a bread box, largely because we keep things in plastic these days and thus don't need the close quarters of the wooden or metal box to keep bread wrapped in paper from drying out. But definitely in July and August I keep my favorite cracked wheat sliced bread in the fridge, otherwise it does mold quite quickly.
- Store dried foods in tight containers to keep out moisture, insects, dirt, and mice.
- Watch out for weevils in hot weather.
- Food in glass should be kept in a cool, dark place. Light affects color, and vitamins.
- Store tinned foods in a dry place to prevent rust.
I am proudest, perhaps, of my baking cupboard, in which almost everything is stored in lovely, air tight glass jars. The brown sugar is never hard, the flour stays fresh, and the dried fruit don't get TOO dry. Storing things in air-tight containers also prevents an infestation of Indian meal moths, which I had the misfortune of dealing with precisely once before I started storing everything in glass. I think they came in with a batch of bulk peanuts in the shell. Of course, they get their name from "Indian meal" - a.k.a cornmeal. They also keep out mice and other insects, although thankfully I have never experienced weevils.
The few home-canned foods I have on hand (and homemade booze), I keep in cupboards so they stay in the dark.
I have heard of the mysterious and delightful-sounding kitchen accoutrement called a "fruit room" - a cool, dry, dark place perfect for storing not only fresh fruit but canned goods. My dream home has one, along with a butler's pantry.
How do you store foods in your home? Do you have a fancy pantry? Or do you make do with kitchen cupboards and a metal rack, like I do?